Part III: Broadening of the Safety Valve
In addition to making retroactive the Fair Sentencing Act's correction of the disparity between sentences for crack and powder cocaine related offenses, a second hallmark of the FIRST STEP Act is the broadening of the safety valve provision, which dispenses with mandatory minium sentences under certain circumstances. While the Act does not provide for retroactivity of this provision, the United States Sentencing Commission estimates that this change will impact more than 2,000 defendants per year in the future. See Sentence and Prison Impact Estimate Summary (last viewed January 27, 2019).
The safety valve, codified at 18 U.S.C. § 3553(f) and also found in section 5C1.2 of the United States Sentencing Guidelines, permits judges to dispense with statutorily imposed mandatory minimum sentences with regard to violations of 21 U.S.C. §§ 841, 844, 846, 960 and 963, which involve the possession, manufacture, distribution, export and importation of controlled substances. Previously, in order to sentence a defendant without regard to the mandatory minimum sentences for these offenses, the court was required to find the following: 1) the defendant does not have more than one criminal history point; 2) the defendant did not use violence, threats, or possess a dangerous weapon or firearm in connection with the offense; 3) the offense did not result in death or serious bodily injury to any person; 4) the defendant was not an organizer, leader, manager or supervisor in the offense, and was not engaged in a continuing criminal enterprise; and 5) the defendant truthfully provided information to the government concerning the offense. See 18 U.S.C. § 3553(f)(1)-(5).
The FIRST STEP Act amends the aforementioned conditions by permitting judges to utilize the safety valve provision even where the defendant has up to four criminal history points, excluding all points for one-point offenses, which are generally minor crimes. However, defendants with prior three-point felony convictions and two-point violent felony convictions are still not permitted to utilize the safety valve. Additionally, the FIRST STEP Act adds 46 U.S.C. §§ 70503 and 70506, which involve the possession, distribution and manufacturing of controlled substances in international waters, to the list of offenses which are covered by the safety valve.
Hiring a top New York criminal defense attorney to defend you in any federal criminal prosecution or assist with any questions concerning the applicability of the FIRST STEP Act is crucial and will ensure that every viable defense or avenue for a sentencing reduction is explored and utilized on your behalf. Lawyers at the Law Offices of Jeffrey Lichtman have successfully handled countless federal cases, exploiting holes in the prosecution's evidence to achieve the best possible result for our clients. Contact us today at (212) 581-1001 for a free consultation.